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Human Papilloma Virus

Introduction

HPV stands for Human papillomavirus. It is a commonly sexually transmitted infection that is capable of causing genital warts and also cervical cancer (Bristol, 2007). It is not based on gender as both the male and the female sexes can carry the infection and this therefore means that it play a major role in other cancer diseases and infection which includes cancer of the vulva, vagina, throat, penis and even anus. HPV vaccines exist in two forms; there is Gardasil and cervarix (Bristol, 2007).

Gardasil prevents and protect against the four HPV types that is 6,11,16 and 18 and this is the reason why it is approved by the FDA for use by all females between the age of 9 up to 26 to help per cent them against genital warts and anal cancer. Cervarix on the other hand just like gardasil also exists in two types that is 16 and 18 and therefore for this reason it is approved for the female within the age bracket of 10 -25 so as to help 6revent  cervical cancer(Bristol, 2007). Both of these are relatively new vaccines introduced and are approved by the FDA in 2006 and 2009 respectively. HPV causes two major types of diseases: cervical cancer and genital warts (Bristol, 2007).

Genital warts come as a result of  HPV type 6 and HPV type 11 both of which attribute to more than 90% of the 1 million new cases that arise from its diagnose. This becomes even embarrassing as its causes itching, burning and pain (Bristol, 2007) and makes patient suffer from emotional and financial stress, therefore, adolescents and adults who have this  need to inform their immediate partner else risk infecting them.

Cervical cancer on the other hand develops only when the cervical epithelium gets infected with one of the encogenic HPV types. Even though mortality rates of cervical cancer have reduced drastically, it comes at number 2 in the leading cause of death in women worldwide. Another notable infection arising from HPV is anal cancer; the incidence of anal cancer is on the rise as approximately 2% per year in both sexes that is both men and women. The rates tend to be even higher in males than in females who practise homosexuality and people with HIV (HPV and HPV vaccine information for healthcare providers, 2006).     

HPV is a very substantial cradle of both the morbidity and mortality across the globe simply because the major risk factor of attaining it is mostly through sexual or sexual activities. This is evident as proven by research which suggests that condoms provide protection against diseases as believed by many people in the world but what majority do not know is that any genital interaction is ample for HPV transmission this implies that even having only one sexual partner will very likely result in infection(Bristol, 2007).

Cumulatively rates of prevalence have risen up to 82% among the adolescent women population, this is because  nearly all females at puberty are sexually active which means that there are at a higher risk of getting HPV therefore due to the constant infection with a high risk of different hpv types for instance HPV 16 or HPV 18 is considered as a high risk cervical cancer development of while on the other hand the low risk which is associated with HPV type 6 or 11 is considered as a potential development to genital warts and possibly other lower grade group of genital abnormalities.

HPV has the ability to regress in adolescent and young adult women and therefore treatment procedures provide a proper chance or rum for observation of the females at puberty who tend to develop low grade lesions that may further progress into an aggressive cervical cancer (Jackson, 2007).          

The only cause for alarm about the HPV vaccine is its side effect, this vaccine is capable of causing side effect which can prove to discouraging to other patient or peers who might be willing to be vaccinated, this side effects include swelling, redness and even pain at sight of the injection, headaches are also associated with it. Even though this are usually just experienced for a very short period of time (HPV and HPV vaccine information for healthcare providers, 2006).Injection site problem such as redness, itching, swelling or even colitis usually occur as a result of Gardasil type of HPV even though vast majority of people at puberty will often experience fever, nausea and pain in the limbs.

Some of the rare side effects include itchy red rash or as it is known as hives in other terms. in some rare cases allergic reactions may come through as a result of this vaccine, this include breathing difficulties and wheezing, swollen eyes, lips, genitals a condition known as angioedema, itching, change in heart rate among others (Bristol, 2007).

Weighing the advantages and disadvantages of HPV vaccine, there are important thing to note since it known that HPV causes genital warts, and canners such as cervical cancer, oropharyngeal cancer recurrent respiratory and anal cancer among others which in turn will have a major impact on the health and financial burden (Jackson,2007).

 There is slow response of immunity to natural HPV infection and therefore the HPV inoculation brings about a durable immune response this is simply because there is a 90% efficiency or greater of HPV vaccines in prevention of cervical cancers and also genital warts caused by HPV types contained in the vaccine. For this reasons therefore support HPV vaccination in all schools so as to reduce the mortality rate be it annually or monthly of people who are affected by the cervical cancer and also genital worst just as the saying goes prevention is better than cure (HPV and HPV vaccine information for healthcare providers, 2006).

Conclusion

I therefore recommend that all young adults and children at the age of 11 or 12, both girls and boys should be vaccinated, catch-up vaccines should also be introduced for males who rare in the age of 21 and for their female counter parts at the age of 26 that if they did not or maybe missed getting vaccinated when they were younger (Jackson, 2007). I also recommend the vaccine to be given to the gay and bisexual population who are at the age of 26 that if they did not get full vaccination when they were young.

For people who are sexually active, I recommend the use of condoms the right way as this lowers the chances of getting HPV though a lot of caution must be taken because HPV can infect areas that are not covered by the condom. Another caution is that sexually active people should always practice mutually monogamous relationships (Human Papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine frequently asked questions, 2007).

Since HPV vaccine creates a lot of economic and health burden, its use has attracted a lot of controversy from the public due to its teenage sexuality, safety, compulsory legislation and the company of vaccine itself therefore these issues arising have been far dealt with by the primary health providers and other clinicians whose interest are to protect their patients’ health through making them understand clearly the low risk of HPV and benefits of vaccination which are the sole reason for the objection therefore the only way is to privatise it rather than making it public (Jackson,2007).

The ACIP has recommended Permissive use as from October 2009 in what is recognized as a vaccine that may be taken by males between the ages of 9 and 26. This bold ACIP action will have a great effect in bringing under control the escalating incidents of HPV-related anal cancer. In addition, there will be a drop in the increasing fears of infected males infecting their female partners which leads to rising costs of healthcare (Bristol, 2007).

The efficiency and safety of HPV vaccines should not be an issue as thought by the public since the vaccine has been evaluated in large randomized clinical trials and to by the research by the female united to unilaterally reduced cervical diseases trials show that there is an efficiency of 98%-100% of the HPV vaccine due to cervical cancer associated with HPV 16 and 18 (Jackson, 2007). Therefore HPV vaccine is a very effective health procedure which aids in the prevention of cervical cancer and also genital warts. just as the saying goes prevention is better than cure and so people and the community as a whole should embrace the use of HPV vaccine to help save lives and also reduce the risk of getting cervical cancer and other related infection associated with the HPV (Jackson,2007).

 

References

Dizon, D. & krychman M. (2010).  Questions and answers about human Papilloma virus (HPV). Sudbury MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Rosenblatt A. & Gustavo H. (2009). Human Papilloma virus: A Practical Guide for Urologists. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Science & Business Media.

Acton A.Q. (2012). HIV/AIDS and Human Papilloma virus: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional. Atlanta, Georgia: Scholarly editions. Ramirez fort M. K, Khan F. Rady P.L & Trying S.K (2014). Human Papilloma virus. Basel, Switzerland: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers.

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